While the conservation of tigers is emphasized in protected areas throughout their range countries, the species continues to be distributed in forests of varying protection status, and in habitats that span international borders. Although India and Nepal share a long border in the Terai belt, this area that was once forested is
now largely agricultural, and wildlife is restricted to
remnant forest patches. This study details the status of tiger and ungulate prey species populations in around 5300 km2 transboundary Terai Arc Landscape (TAL), documents the movement of tigers between forests in
India and Nepal based on camera trap data and makes specific recommendations for the conservation of tigers and their prey in Transboundary TAL. Notable protected area within the study area includes Chitwan and Bardia National Parks in Nepal and Dudhwa and Valmiki Tiger reserves in India.
This study was carried out in 7 protected areas and reserve forests in India, and 5 protected areas, three biological corridors (protected forests) and adjoining forest patches in Nepal. Occupancy surveys for animal signs involved 4496 kilometres of
foot surveys in Nepal and India. Between November 2012 and June 2013, these sites were sampled with a total of 1860 camera trap stations, with a total sampling effort of 36,266 trap nights. Nearly 9000 km2 of tiger habitat was sampled with camera traps. 3370 kilometres of line transects (n=239) were sampled in the landscape. Cumulatively, this sampling exercise is the largest survey effort of its kind in the Terai Arc Landscape to date, and involved partnerships between National and State government agencies, research institutions, non-governmental organizations and members of local communities who participated in the research.